The House of Hanover


When Britain's last Stuart monarch, Queen Anne died in 1714, the crown of England passed by the 1701 Act of Setttlement to the Stuart dynasty's German Protestant cousins, the House of Hanover, or Brunswick-Luneberg in the person of King George I, who was actually 52nd in line to the throne at that time. The Act effectively excluded the hereditary Stuart heir, James II's Catholic son, James Francis Edward Stuart, thereafter referred to as the 'Old Pretender'.

The House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the German House of Welf or Guelph, itself a branch of the House of Este, whose oldest traceable members resided in Lombardy in the Dark Ages, produced five of Britain's monarchs.

On the death of William IV (1765-1837), the last Hanoverian king, Hanover and England ceased to share a ruler, Victoria (1837-1901), the daughter of Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III, succeeded her uncle in England but since the Salic Law (which prohibited the succession through the female line) prevailed in Hanover the dukedom was inherited by George III's fifth son, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland.

Hanoverian dynasty

On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901 the throne of Britain passed to the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, in the person of her son, Edward VII. The present head of the House of Hanover is Prince Ernst August of Hanover, who is married to Princess Caroline of Monaco.

Monarch   Birth & Reign Married
George I b.1660
son of -
Ernest Augustus
Elector of Hanover
and Sophia of
the Palatine

r.1714 -1727
Sophia Dorothea
of Celle
George II b.1683
son of-
George I
& Sophia Dorothea
of Celle
r.1727-1760
Caroline of Anspach
George III b.1738
son of-
Frederick
Prince of Wales

& Augusta of Saxe-
Gotha
r.1760-1820
Charlotte of
Mecklenburg-Strelitz
George IV b.1762
son of-
George III
& Charlotte of
Mecklenberg-Strelitz
r.1820 -1830
Caroline of Brunswick
William IV b.1765
son of-
George III
& Charlotte of
Mecklenberg-Strelitz
r.1830-1837
Adelaide of
Saxe-Meiningen
Queen Victoria b.1819
daughter of-
Edward Duke of Kent
& Victoire of
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield
r.1837-1901
Albert of
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Sophia of Hanover Frederick
Prince of Wales
Augusta of
Saxe-Gotha
William, Duke of
Cumberland
Edward, Duke of
York and Albany
Caroline Matilda
Queen of Denmark
The fifteen children
of George III
Edward Duke of Kent
Princess Charlotte
of Wales
Maria FitzHerbert FitzClarence Family Ernest Augustus,
King of Hanover
Augustus Frederick,
Duke of Sussex
Adolphus Frederick,
Duke of Cambridge
Princes Octavius
and Alfred
Princess Mary
Princess Sophia Princess Amelia Mary Adelaide,
Duchess of Teck
Porphyria in the
House of Hanover
Genealogical Tables