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Robert the Bruce

Welcome to Scottish Monarchs

Mary, Queen of Scots

Scottish Monarchs

This section of our history covers the lives and reigns of all the monarchs of Scotland from the first Scottish King, Kenneth MacAlpin, who emerged from the mists of the Dark ages as the first King of Scotland in 843, to the death of that ill fated seductress, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was beheaded in an English prison on the orders of Elizabeth I.

The MacAlpin dynasty, which ruled Scotland throughout the Dark Ages, united the warring races of Picts and Scots as one nation. Our section on this dynasty includes the reign of Kenneth I himself and covers the bitter blood feud fought out between the two opposing lines of his successors for possession of the throne.

The following chapter, on the short lived House of Moray, includes an account of the reign of Macbeth, of Shakespearian fame, who usurped the throne of Scotland and reveals that the actual history of Macbeth and Duncan was very different to how Shakespeare has presented it to his audiences down the ages.

At the dawn of the Middle Ages, the House of Dunkeld seized the Scottish throne replacing the line of Gaelic Kings which had ruled since the ninth century. It produced such varying characters as the devout David I and Alexander I, known as the Fierce. The House of Dunkeld could also claim a saint in it's midst, in the person of Margaret, the wife of Malcolm Canmore, who was also one of the last representatives of the Anglo-Saxon House of Wessex.

Edward I of England's overbearing attempts to rule Scotland resulted in the Scottish Wars of Independence, which saw the meteoric rise of one of Scotland's most famous sons, the patriot William Wallace, who raised his countrymen to fight for the cause of freedom and was destined to suffer an agonizing death at the hands of his English enemies. After the demise of Wallace, the banner of Scottish resistance was taken up by Robert the Bruce, Scotland's greatest monarch, who lead his country to finally win her freedom from English dominance at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.

James V of Scotland

After the Bruce dynasty failed in the male line, on the death of Robert's only son, the throne of Scotland was occupied by the romantic but ill starred Stewart dynasty, which descended from the Bruce's daughter.

The tragic Mary Queen of Scots was the last scion of their line. Beautiful, but reckless and impulsive, Mary was suspected of complicity in the murder of her ineffectual second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and later alienated the Scots lords by marrying James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, widely believed to be his murderer. She was forced to abdicate and endured a long term of imprisonment at the hands of her English cousin, Elizabeth I. In 1567 she ended her days under the executioner's axe at Fotheringay in Northamptonshire, an action which shocked all Europe. The crowns of Scotland and England were finally united in the person of the son Mary was fated never to see from infancy, James I and VI, the first King of all Britain.

The House of MacAlpin

Monarch   Birth and Reign Married
Kenneth MacAlpin Kenneth MacAlpin b. around 810
son of Alpin mac Echdach
r. 843-858
Donald I   c. 812
son of-Kenneth MacAlpin
Constantine I  
son of-
son of Kenneth MacAlpin,
r. 862–877
Aodh   b. before 858
son of-
Kenneth MacAlpin,
r. 877–878
Giric   b. c 832
possible son of -
Dúngal
r. 878–889
Donald II   b. 1284
son of-
Constantín I
r. 899-900
Constantine II   b. before 879
son of-
Áodh, King of the Picts
r. 900–943
Malcolm I  
son of-
Donald II
r. 943–954
Indulf  
son of
Constantine II
r. 954–962
Dubh  
son of-
Malcolm I
r. 962–967
Colin  
son of-
Indulf
r 967–971
Kenneth II  
son of
Malcolm I,
r. 971–995
Constantine III  
son of-
Colin
r. 995–997
Kenneth III   b. before 967
son of-
Dubh
r. 997–1005
Malcolm II  
son of
Kenneth II,
r. 1005–1034

The House of Moray

Monarch   Birth & Reign Married
Macbeth  
son of-
Findláech mac Ruaidrí,
Mormaer of Moray and
Donada, daughter of Malcolm II
r. 1040–1057
Gruoch of Scotland
Lulach  
son of-
Gille Coemgáin of Moray
and Gruoch of Scotland
r. 1057 – 1058

The House of Dunkeld

Monarch   Birth & Reign Married
Duncan I  
son of-
Crinan of Dunkeld
and Bethoc
daughter of Malcolm II,
r. 1034–1040
Suthen
Malcolm III
'Canmore'
Malcolm III b. 26 March 1031
son of-
Duncan I
r.1058–1093
(i)Ingeborg of Halland
(ii)St. Margaret
Donald III Donald Bane b. before 1040
son of-
Duncan I
r. 1093–1094, 1094–1097
Edgar Edgar, King of Scots b. c. 1074
son of-
Malcolm III
and Margaret of Wessex
r. 1097–1107
Alexander I   b.c.1078
son of-
Malcolm III
and Margaret of Wessex
r.1107–1124
Sybilla of Normandy
daughter of
Henry I of England
David I David I b. 1084
son of-
Malcolm III
and Margaret of Wessex
r. 1124 – 1153
Maud of Huntingdon
Malcolm IV   b.1141
son of-
Henry, Earl of Huntingdon
and Ada de Warenne
r. 1153 – 1165
William the Lion William the Lion b. 1143
son of
Henry, Earl of Huntingdon
and Ada de Warenne
r. 1165 – 1214
Ermengarde de Beaumont
Alexander II Alexander II b. 24 August 1198
son of-
William I of Scotland
and Ermengarde de Beaumont
r. 1214 –1249
(1) Joan of England
(2) Marie de Coucy
Alexander III Alexangder III of Scotland b. 4 September 1241
son of-
Alexander II and
Marie de Coucy
r.1249 –1286
(1) Margaret of England
(2)Yolande de Dreux
Margaret, Maid of Norway Margaret Maid of Norway b.9 April 1283
daughter of
Eric II of Norway
and Margaret of Scotland
r. 1286 – 1290

The House of Balliol

Monarch   Birth & Reign Married
John I   b. 1248
son of-
Sir John Balliol
and Devorguilla of Galloway
r.1292 - 1296
Isabella
de Warenne
Edward I   b. 5 March 1324
son of-
John I and
Isabella de Warenne
r.1332-1336
Margaret of Taranto

The House of Bruce

Monarch   Birth & Reign Married
Robert I Robert the Bruce b. 11 July 1274
son of-
Robert the Bruce,
Lord of Annandale
and Marjorie,
Countess of Carrick
r. 1306–1329
(1)Isabella of Mar
(2)Elizabeth de Burgh
David II David II b. 5 March 1324
son of-
Robert I and
Elizabeth de Burgh
r. 1329 – 1371
(1)Joan of England
(2)Margaret Drummond

The House of Stewart

Monarch   Birth & Reign Married
Robert II b. 1316
son of-
Walter Stewart
& Marjorie Bruce
r. 1371-1390
Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan
Robert III b. c1340
son of-
Robert II
& Elizabeth Mure
r.1390-1406
Annabella Drummond
James I b. 1394
son of-
Robert III
&Annabella Drummond
r.1406-1437
Joan Beaufort
James II b.1430
son of-
James I
& Joan Beaufort
r.1437 - 1460
Mary of Guelders
James III b.1451
son of-
James II
& Mary of Gueldres
r.1460-1488
Margaret of Denmark
James IV b.1473
son of-
James III
&Margaret of Denmark
r. 1488-1513
Margaret Tudor
James V b.1512
son of-
James IV
&Margaret Tudor
r.1513-1542
(1)Madeleine of France
(2)Mary of Guise
Mary, Queen of Scots b.1543
daughter of
James V
& Mary of Guise
r. 1542-1567
(1)Francis II of France
(2)Henry Stuart
Lord Darnley

(3)James Hepburn
Earl of Bothwell