The Princes of Gwynedd

The Principality of Gwynedd emerged in fifth century Britain during the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons to Britain. Welsh tradition states that Gwynedd was founded by Picts from Lothian invading the lands of the Brythonic Deceangli, Ordovices, and Gangani. The name Gwynedd itself is said to be an early borrowing from Irish.

From their power base in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd repeatedly ascended to prominence in Wales and survived Saxon attacks and the construction of Offa's Dyke along the Welsh-English border in the eighth century, Viking raids in the ninth century and widespread power struggles within Wales itself until the eleventh century kingdom of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was crushed by an Anglo-Saxon invasion led by the Saxon Earl Harold Godwineson in 1063.

The dynasty was restored by Gruffydd ap Cynan and made a slow recovery. In 1216 Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd proclaimed the Principality of Wales at Aberdyfi. The pprincipality lasted until Edward I invaded Wales. The brothers Llywelyn ap Grufydd ( circa 1223-1282) and Dafydd ap Gruffydd (circa 1238 - 3 1283), who reigned briefly in 1283 following the death of his brother at the hands of the English, were to be the last rulers of an independent Gwynedd. Thereafter the principality was annexed to the English crown.

Monarch Birth and reign Son of Married
Rhodri Mawr circa 820-878
son of-
Merfyn Frych
and Nest
ferch Cadell
Angharad ferch
Hywell Dda circa 880 - 950
son of-
Cadell ap Rhodri
Elen ferch Llywarch
Grufydd ap Llywelyn circa 1007-
1063 or 1064

son of-
Llywelyn ap Seisyll
and Angharad
ferch Maredudd
Eadgyth, daughter
of Ælfgar
Earl of Mercia
Grufydd ap Cynan circa 1055 - 1137
son of-
Llywelyn ap Seisyll
and Angharad
ferch Maredudd
Eadgyth, daughter
of Ælfgar
Earl of Mercia
Owain Gwynedd
b.circa 1080
r. 1137-1170

son of-
Cynan ab Iago and Ragnhildr
Angharad daughter
of Owain ab Edwin
of Tegeingl
Llywelyn the Great b. 1173
r. 1199-1240

son of-
Iorwerth ap Owain,
Prince of Gwynedd
and Marared ferch
Joan Lady of Wales, daughter of
King John
of England
Dafydd ap Llywelyn b.1212
r. 1240-1246

son of-
Llyelyn the Great
and Joan of England
Isabella de Braose
Llywelyn the Last b. circa 1223
r. 1246-1282

son of-
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
and Senena ferch
Eleanor de Montfort
daughter of
Simon de Montfort
Earl of Leicester
Owain Glyndwr b. circa 1349
son of -
Gruffydd Fychan II
and Elen ferch Tomas
Margaret Hanmer

Gwenlian of Wales
Castles of the
Native Welsh Princes
Castles of
Edward I